Analysis Project comparison between Written and spoken Language variation in formality and complexity


Prompt: Your task is to write a 35 page paper analyzing these two different genres. Though

you will examine two texts from the same student, we will see that talking about experiments
and writing about experiments just aren’t the same thing. Not only are the students learning
about the appropriate way to participate in both of these genres, but the requirements and
expectations vary. In this assignment, we will find specific ways that students recognize this
variation and apply their linguistic knowledge differently. We will primarily look for the
following types of variation between these texts:
Levels of formality: Compare how formal vs. informal each text is. Such variation
can be found at various levels of linguistic analysis. For example:
o This can be with sentence construction or by how phrases are (or are not)
reduced through ellipsis.
o On a lexical level, we may see indicators of formality such as the use of
contractions, slang/jargon, or academic vocabulary.
o We may find phonetic or phonemic markers for informality, but we are limited in
terms of how we can use this information. We cannot compare
phonetic/phonemic elements of written vs. spoken language, so we can only
make casual observation on this level.
o If there are other levels of formality that you think of which also fit within the
content, please let me know and we may potentially add these to your study.
Complexity: There tends to be a difference in complexity between these text
types. For this, we can also examine the data at various linguistic levels. For
example:
o We may look at the phrasal level and decide to examine the number of
words/morphemes used in each noun phrase or verb phrase.
o We may also choose to see the number of descriptive prepositional or
complement phrases. This would also connect with complexity at the sentence
level.
o We may want to examine the number of clauses used in each sentence, or the
variability of conjunction/complement usage. A higher prevalence of compound
or complex sentences would indicate a higher level of complexity within the
writing.oEven at the lexical level, the data may show different patterns in lexical variation.

One text may rely on a less diverse variety of lexical choices whereas the other
may have higher lexical variability.
Think about what you know about the genres and decide which patterns you think you are
most likely to find. Create at least two hypotheses for each of these types of variation
(formality or complexity). Your research will allow you to test these four total hypotheses and
see what patterns you uncover.
Paper Structure: Let’s look at the general structure of our written response for these types of
variation:
Introduction: Let your reader know what you will be doing in this assignment. Discuss
the topic, the texts you have, what you are looking to do with them, and how you intend
to do this. It is very important that the introduction includes your hypotheses (before
you analyze the data and get results) with a brief justification for why you have these
hypotheses. A successful introduction will also include how you generally intend to test
your hypotheses. We want to have well thought out expectations and then have an
honest scientific analysis to see if we were right.
This may be multiple paragraphs should you choose to also include detail about the
student population who created the texts here. You may also include this in the
methods section if you see fit. Look at the methods section description and decide
where you believe your information fits best.
Methods: The purpose of the methods section is to detail how you go about testing
your hypotheses. In this section, we can expect to find background information about
the texts you are analyzing and how they were collected (not by you, but how the data
was gathered). In addition, there should be an explanation of the population being
studied and how you intend to test your hypotheses and collect your data.

Results: The purpose of the results section is to report the findings after the process
discussed in the methods section was carried out. In this section, you discuss the raw
figures of the research paper. This is not a time to interpret the results, but rather
present what they were from the levels of analysis that you performed. Remember that
this is a written section that is supported by wellplanned visuals. We don’t want to
replace the written portion by just presenting visuals. Write about the results. Make
them easier to understand by including visuals as well.Discussion:The purpose now is to interpret the results. We do this bydiscussingwhat

the results mean and why we believe these results occurred. What do we learn about
language use in these genres from our analysis? This is where we draw conclusions
about formality and complexity. Use the data to support your conclusions. Make direct
references to the results to support your analysis.

Conclusion: Now we are to takeaway messages. We reflect on the study and think
about some limitations of the study might be. Where we were successful and learned
something new, we imagine the next step that our research should take. This is the time
to give advice for future research.

Appendix: Include any visuals that you may want to include to support your writing. We
should see the raw data here (the written text and the transcription of the spoken
form). If there are any charts or visual representations that you want to include here
that did not appear in the results section, you may attach those here as well. Just be
sure to refer to what you have in the appendix in your paper. The visuals and the
appendix are not considered part of your written text, though. Just make sure to still
have 35 pages of written work in your assignment.

Stages of the assignment: In order to get to a point where you will be ready to submit a 35
page paper, we will have some stops along the way. For more instruction on these, please
consult the Final Project module on Canvas. Look here for assignments and due dates to help
you understand an overview of the task at hand.

Predicting results (due 11/30)the 2 Hypothese
Analyzing Data (due 12/2)
Outline for the research paper (due 12/7)
Results section (due 12/9)
Final research paper (due 12/14)

We will have plenty of opportunity to discuss this in class as we finish the semester. Please stay
on top of the due dates and ask whenever you are having trouble or have a question. If we
work together, we can make sure you turn something in at the end of the semester that you
are very proud of. I, for one, am looking forward to reading what you put together

Spoken text:https://lbschools.instructuremedia.com/embed/052cc..

.Transcript of the spoken text:

Um, so the lab we did was on um, selective permeability
and diffusion. And so the setup was, uh, we took a cup
and we put iodine solution in it and then we took a glass, like,
a glass tube and we got a, um…
Sorry, we got a, a control amount of the iodine

solution to see if any, uh, to see the difference
between the iodine solution that that would be, that
would end up going through the test. And then we got a
dialysis tubing and made it back out of that and
and um, and put starch and fructose in it. And then we
left it for 24 hours overnight to see what would
happen. And we ended up uh, we ended up seeing that the
solution inside the bag went from white to black
and the black solution came from when starch and
fructose combined, er, not starch and fructose,
starch and iodine when they are mixed together it turned
into a black solution and then also the color inside
the cup went from darker red to lighter red. And
then the fructose was present in the cup after.
And there was iodine present in the bag and we
can interpret this data to mean, to show how that, um, the
glucose, er, not glucose, the fructose was able
to pass through the bag into the cup and the iodine
and was able to pass through the bag, into the bag
And, and this shows how, that those two items are
able to be permeable through the bag.
However, starch is not and we can figure thisout because iodine and fructose are smaller

molecules. Although, fructose is still larger, it’s still
able to pass through this membrane. But, um, starches
is too complex and is not able to get through. It’s too big.
So, again, um.
This all happens because of diffusion. And diffusion
is the movement of a substance from a higher to lower area of
concentration. And so the iodine and the fructose inside the bag, inside
the cup. They want to achieve equilibrium within both
sides. So, they transfer between… between each other
so that they can, um, so that one side is not too high.
They transfer from the higher end of the
concentration gradient to the lower end of the
concentration gradient. And, and I already talked about the setup, but.
Yeah, we can skip that part.
And then I talked about the results, too.
And then, so this lab shows how selectively permeable
membrane that, um, only certain molecules are able to
pass through it with simple diffusion. And in this
case the lab was iodine and fructose. But, um, larger
molecules are not able to pass through it. In this
case with starch. And the dialysis tubing
represents as a cell membrane. And it shows how
smaller items are able to pass through easily. But
the larger items might… will have to use
active transport and the help of carrier proteins
to get through the cell membrane

Please,forces on this written text and compare by measuring the formality and complexity with spoken version:

The Iodine solution will try to enter the bag and vice versa due to diffusion, it must go down it’s conmcentration
gradient. I think that the solution inside the bag will not only consist of fructose and starch, but also iodine since
it can pass through the selectively permeable membrane due to their small size. I think the Fructose might also
be in the cup because they can pass through as well using active transport, but the starch wont change
because it is too big.

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