Problem with Special Education: Effective Teaching – Annotated Bibliography
Problem with Special Education: Effective Teaching McKay, L. M., Carrington, S., and Iyer, R. (2014). Becoming an inclusive educator: Applying Deleuze & Guattari to teacher education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3), 178-196.
The article considers problems that teachers face when trying to combine their theoretical knowledge with practical inclusion of students with special educational needs. The authors advocate the value of rhizomatic analysis (critical reflection on multiple issues) and suggest that teachers analyze their personal beliefs (moral domain) and teaching practices (ethical domain). While using reflective diaries, classroom observations, and semi-structured interviews of a beginning teacher Sandra, the article shows how the practice helps her to become an effective inclusive teacher.
Critical reflection revealed a conflict between Sandra’s beliefs and practice and enabled her to control teaching process better. Her confidence with regard to her role as a change agent and an inclusive teacher increased. Critical reflection inspired Sandra to empower special students and allow them to control their own education. She started using student-centered approach and collecting students’ feedback, thus developing cohesive environment. The authors concluded with an idea that critical reflection helps teachers to consider other aspects of learning environment and thus, improve learning outcomes.
Takala, M., Pirttimaa, R., and Törmänen, Minna. (2009). Inclusive special education: the role of special education teachers in Finland. British Journal of Special Education, 36(3), 162-172.
The article analyzes the work of special education teachers in Finnish schools. In Finland, special education is a part of educational system and special teachers provide support any time learning difficulties are noticed. Based on a questionnaire distributed among part-time special teachers in Helsinki, Espoo, and Vantaa, the article revealed that direct teachers’ work includes individual teaching, teaching in small groups, and cooperation with the subject or class teacher.
Teaching in small groups is the most common solution and involves different teaching practices, pedagogical initiatives, and mental and metacognitive approaches. The latter three aspects are crucial to effective learning and teaching how to learn but are used less often as teachers tend to teach subjects. Indirect work mostly involves planning, material design, and assessment. Teaching takes two thirds of special teachers’ time, background work takes 22% of time, and consultation takes 12%. However, effective special education and improved rehabilitation require more resources and time for indirect work and cooperation with teachers and parents. Therefore, special teachers need more managerial support and should be double experts who have both special education knowledge and good interaction skills.
Villegas, A. M. (2012). Collaboration between multicultural and special teacher educators: Pulling together the threads in the conversation. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(4), 286–290.
The article argues that educators teaching children who need special education should also consider their socio-cultural backgrounds. Background includes class, ethnicity, and language in combination with disability. Together, these factors affect …