Examining Methodology and Design Essay –

Assignment: Examining Methodology and Design Essay

Assignment: Examining Methodology and Design Essay


A quantitative study by Zheng et al. (2019) was selected for this assignment. It examined the effectiveness of outpatient diabetes self-management education program on improving self-reported psychological distress, self-management, and glycemic control. The study used 60 patients suffering from type two diabetes mellitus who were assigned randomly to intervention and control groups. As shown by Banerjee and Duflo (2017), randomization is appropriate in such studies because it reduces bias in selection process. It also increases the generalizability of the study outcomes. The participants were selected based on a developed inclusion and exclusion criteria. Questionnaires were used for data collection purposes. The use of questionnaires was effective since Harris (2014) argues that they allow the acquisition of extensive data related to the study. The control group received health education on diabetes management during their initial visit to the clinic. The intervention group received two education sessions besides the initial program administered to the control group. Baseline data was obtained before the study in order to determine the effectiveness of the intervention in glycemic control and self-care management of diabetes at the end of the research.

The methods used by Zheng et al. (2019) were appropriate for a quantitative research. As shown by Howitt (2016), methodology used in quantitative research should demonstrate rigor in scientific research. The method of participant identification and selection should be explained explicitly. There should also be explicit provision of the methods of data collection and minimizing bias that could affect the outcomes of the research. Despite the accuracy of the methodology used in this research, the authors did not develop interventions to regulate the effect of intervening factors on the study outcomes.

A mixed-method study by Kullgren et al. (2016) was also selected for this assignment. The study sought to examine the facilitators, barriers, and frequency of engagement of pre-diabetic employees in recommended behaviors during workplace screening.  The study used 82 employees of University of Michigan who were found to be pre-diabetic during a workplace screening performed 2014. The pre-screening data was used as the baseline data. Data was then obtained three months later from these employees on whether they engaged in recommended behaviors or not and the facilitators and barriers to their ability to engage in them. Online surveys were used to obtain data from participants who consented to take part in the research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were also conducted to determine the facilitators and barriers to their engagement in recommended behaviors. Unlike the research by Zheng et al. (2019), the research by Kullgren et al. (2016) has significant methodological flaws. Firstly, the inclusion and exclusion criteria for selecting research participants were not stated. The approach to selection of the study participants also increased the bias in the reported findings. However, the use of mixed method approach in this research increased the relevance of the reported findings.

A qualitative study by Ogunrinu et al. (2017) was selected for this assignment. The study explored the educational experiences alongside self-care management practices among patients suffering from type II diabetes. The study used focus group discussions and key informant interviews to obtain the needed data. Information was obtained from 20 participants with type II diabetes (16 for focus group discussions and 4 as key informants). The study participants were selected based on a developed inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected through digital recording and note taking. Thematic analysis was later done to understand the common experiences of the participants.  Ogunrinu et al., (2017)’s methodology aligns with the approaches to qualitative methodology provided by Holloway (2017). The methods of participant selection, data acquisition, analysis, and presentation were provided. However, the methods are prone to bias, hence, the low reliability of their reported findings.


The research by Zheng et al. (2019) used experimental quantitative study design. According to Howitt (2016), experimental quantitative study designs focus on objective measurements and the use of statistical and mathematical methods for data analysis. They aim at providing data that can be generalized to the larger population alongside testing a phenomenon. The design used by Zheng et al. (2019) is associated with strengths that include its great objectivity and accuracy of findings, minimal bias, highly generalizable data, and easily replicable findings due to the use of universal standards of research. However, it is associated with weaknesses that include its limited numerical results, high control of the research process, and inability to reflect the experiences of the populations.

The study by Kullgren et al. (2016) used the mixed methods study design. The design is characterized by the use of both quantitative and qualitative study designs. The need for the combined designs is attributed to enhanced understanding of the problem under investigation with them. The use of this method is associated with strengths that include the elimination of weaknesses in each of the designs, enhanced understanding of the research problem, and explains the causal relationship in variables under investigation. However, it can be a complex process, time consuming, and can be difficult for researchers to resolve the discrepancies in the interpretation of the study findings (Howitt, 2016).

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Ogunrinu et al. (2017) used qualitative design. According to Holloway (2017), qualitative study designs are used to develop a holistic,

Assignment Examining Methodology and Design Essay

Assignment Examining Methodology and Design Essay

narrative description of individual experiences. It enhances the human understanding of cultural or social phenomena that influence individual experiences. The use of this design is associated with strengths that include providing in-depth understanding of people’s experiences, aid in theory development, and significant flexibility to suit the individual needs and experiences. However, it is associated with weaknesses such as significant bias, limited representation of the larger population, and its descriptive nature.

External and Internal Validity Issues

External validity and internal validity can be used to determine the worthiness of quantitative research. Internal validity in this case refers to the determination of whether the outcomes are attributed to manipulation of the independent variable. External validity focuses on whether the findings can be generalized. It can be seen that Zheng et al. (2019)’s study has low external validity due to the few study participants, which make it difficult to generalize to a larger population. It also has low internal validity due to the manipulation of the independent variables by the researchers. The sources of threats to validity in quantitative studies include construct, statistical, and population validity.

Qualitative studies focus mainly on people’s experiences. They are evaluated based on their credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability. The validity can also be determined using interpretive, descriptive, theoretical, generalizability, and evaluative validity. Some of the threats to validity of qualitative research include ironic legitimation, paralogical legitimation, voluptuous legitimation, and rhizomatic legitimation (Holloway, 2017). Mixed studies utilize both the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative studies. This implies that their validity is affected by issues of integration, representation, and legitimation. Therefore, it proves difficult to determine whether such studies meet the purposes of mixed methodological studies that include complementarity, triangulation, initiation, development, and expansion (Hesse-Biber & Johnson, 2015).

Alternate Methodologies

The research by Zheng et al. (2019) could have benefited from the use of correlational study design. The researchers could have obtained their data from the participants at a given point of time to determine whether there is a correlation between a specific exposure and management of diabetes. This method could have given information on the existence of naturally occurring correlations, patterns, and their trends. The research by Kullgren et al. (2016) could have benefited from the use of quantitative study design alone. The design could have allowed for the testing of hypothesis existing between the disease and exposure. It would have also increased the validity of the study findings. The research by Ogunrinu et al. (2017) could have benefited from mixed method design. Qualitative research has low validity and reliability of its findings. Therefore, making it a mixed method research could have increased its worthiness due to the offsetting of the weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative designs.


In summary, my research topic can be examined with the use of different study designs. However, it can be seen from the above analysis that the use of quantitative design in investigating the topic is more credible than the use of mixed method and qualitative designs. Quantitative designs are associated with objective data that can be generalized to a larger population. They also have minimal bias that increases the relevance of the findings. Therefore, it is essential that researchers explore the need for alternate methodologies to increase the credibility of their research findings.

My project topic is Diabetes self-care management education. I will need three articles, one quantitative, one qualitative and one mixed-method related to my Diabetes self-care management education. You will need to also create a comparison table, describing the methodology and design used within each article. The table will be provided as an Appendix to the paper. Also the paper needs to discuss the different methodologies and designs used in each study, including the external and internal validity issues associated with each methodology and design. This paper is due 1-8-19, I would like it at least 2 days before due date so I can review it and edit if need be. Thank you. and Happy New Year!

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