Introduction to Chemistry Foundation


Instructions to Candidates
o Write your name in the box above.
o Answer any THREE questions.
o Write your answers in a separate word-processed document and attach them to
this booklet.
Information for Candidates
o This paper has 3 pages.
o There are 5 questions in this question paper. The total mark for this paper is 60.
o There are 20 marks for each of the three questions that you select.
Examination Certificate in Foundation Studies in Science and Engineering
Paper Title Introduction to Chemistry Paper code IML3523
Student Name
For examiner’s use only
Marker 1 Marker 2 Agreed
Total
2
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Answer any THREE out of the five questions in this booklet
Write your answers in a separate word-processed document and attach to this
booklet.
Each question carries 20 marks and answers should include the correct use of
appropriate scientific terminology.
Any diagrams included in the answers must be hand-drawn and labelled.
1. Describe the operation of the single beam mass spectrometer. With
reference to the element, iron, your description should include:
• The names of the stages that take place.
• Details of the processes that take place during each stage, with any
relevant equations.
• The components of the mass spectrometer responsible for the
causing the processes.
• An annotated sketch of the mass spectrum for iron.
Your description may include a labelled diagram of the apparatus showing
the various compartments.
(20 marks)
2. Discuss the chemistry of the alkenes. Your discussion should include:
• The structures of the molecules including the phenomenon of
isomerism.
• The general type of reaction that alkenes exhibit, giving at least
three specific examples of this type of reaction.
• The conditions required for the reactions that you have chosen.
• The type of mechanism of reaction including the method of bond
fission.
• The uses of the reactions.
(20marks)
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3. Many chemical reactions in industrial processes are reversible. The yield of
the products of such reactions are dependent on the use of compromise
conditions
Discuss the factors that affect the both the rate of reaction and the yield of
the product of a reversible reaction with reference to the manufacture of
ammonia by the Haber Process.
Your discussion should include reference to:
• Le Chatelier’s principle and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.
• The reasons for the compromise conditions that are used to obtain
optimal yield of the product.
(20marks)
4. Compare the chemical bonding and structures in giant metallic, giant
covalent and giant ionic crystals, and their effect on the physical properties
of these substances.
Your comparisons should include:
• A description of the types of bonding and structure with reference to
particular elements and /or compounds.
• Reference to physical properties such as solubility, melting and
boiling points, electrical conductivity and hardness.
5. The chemistry of the Group 7 elements (the halogens) in the Periodic
Table involves redox reactions. Discuss the redox reactions of the
halogens with reference to:
• Why the halogens act as oxidising agents.
• Specific examples (at least three) of their redox reactions using
oxidation numbers to identify oxidation and reduction reactions,
including one example of a disproportionation reaction.
• Half electron equations and full redox equations for the reactions.
• The trend in the reactivity of the halogens in the Periodic Table
together with an explanation for the observed trend.
(20 marks)

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