Joural of Hydrology 14 (1971) 93-128; Co., AmsterdamNot to be reproduced by photoprint or microflm without written permission from the publisherSEASONAL FLUCTUATIONS IN THE CHEMISTRY OF LIMESTONE SPRINGS: A POSSIBLE MEANS FOR CHARACTERIZINGCARBONATE AQUIFERSEV AN T. SHUSTERDepartment of GeologyandWILLIAM B. WHITEDepartment of Geochemistry and Mineralogy and Materials Research Laboratory,The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, U.S.A.Abstract: The dissolved carbonate species were analyzed in the waters of 14 carbonatesprings in the Central Appalachians at 2-week intervals during water year 1967-68. Thesprings were classifed into system types and conduit feeder-systemtypes by hydrogeologic evidence. Comparison with the chemical parameters showed thatthe conduit springs were very variable in hardness throughout the year (coefcient ofvariation 10-24 %) whereas the difuse fow springs had a rather constant hardness (coefcient of variation < 5 %). The variation in hardness is a better index of aquifer type thanis hardness itself. Difuse fow springs were, on the average near saturation; the conduitsprings were undersaturated by factors of 2 to 5. were near unity for springsfed by dolomites or ; Ca/Mg ratios for limestone springs were3-8 times higher. Aquifr systems of quite diferent fow mechanics. can exist in the samehydrogeologic environment and can be distinguished by their chemical behavior.