Need an research paper on cross -culture.

Need an research paper on cross -culture. Needs to be 2 pages. Please no plagiarism. Cross Culture Inserts His/Her Inserts Grade Inserts (24, October, Introduction Culture is defined as a set of beliefs and customs that are shared by the members of a particular group. Culture, as defined by Hofstede (1980), “is the collective programming of human mind that distinguishes the members of one human group from those of another”.

Today’s business environment is extremely diverse with many employees from different cultural backgrounds working together as a single force. Globalization has reduced boundaries and no longer the firms, are limited by a particular geographical area. Firms are operating at an international level therefore managers have to deal with employees of different cultural orientation. Managers therefore have to understand the cultural differences in order to operate effectively in the tough business environment. Managers are required to motivate their employees and they can only do that if they know the differences between cultures of employees.

Awareness of cultural differences is a must in order to manage employees from different background. For example Japanese and Indian working together will have different needs like in Japan lunch is the main meal of the day while in India dinner is the main meal. Now a manager has to decide upon the lunch timings so that both the needs of Japanese and Indian employees can be satisfied. This is why cross cultural training is important both for employees and for managers.

Hofstedes cultural dimension PDI

Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory gives six dimensions of values across which people differ with each other. One of those dimensions is the Power Distance Index or PDI. Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. PDI represents inequality in an organization or in a country. Culture that has low PDI is more democratic and people are considered equal. Culture that has high PDI is autocratic and people accept inequality.

Brazil has a 69 on PDI which is very high. The world average on PDI is 55 which mean that Brazil has higher PDI as compared to the average. This means that Brazil is a relatively autocratic society with greater inequalities. Brazil’s PDI is very similar to Latin American countries. In Brazil people accept that organizational hierarchies exist and also accept lower pays relative to supervisors. A tradition of giving in to the authority exists in the country.

Hofstedes cultural dimension INV

Another dimension of Hofstede’s theory is individuality versus collectivism. It is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. In individualistic cultures people focus on personal achievement and individual rights. On the other hand in collectivist cultures people have more emphasis on groups and people are considered as a member of the society.

Brazil is rated 38 on the IDV scale. This means that Brazil is relatively collectivist in its cultural orientation. North American countries are highly rated on IDV which means that they are highly individualistic. Average Latin American population has a score of 21. This means that Brazil is more individualist culture wise than its Latin American counterparts.

The level of group loyalties is high in Brazil compared to the Western World but it is lower compared to the other Latin American countries. Touching arms and elbows in Brazil is quite common and this is evidence of its collectivist culture (, 2008).


Brazil. 2008. Accessed on October 24, 2011 from

Hofstede, G.H. 1980. Culture Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values.