NURS 680B Discussion abdominal/pelvic pain – Essay Furious

Select one of the following case studies to address. In the subject line of your post, please identify which prompt you are responding to, for example, choice #2 19-year old male.

A 23-year old female complains of severe left lower abdominal/pelvic pain for 6 hours. States her last menstrual period was “about 3 or 4 weeks ago”. She is sexually active and denies using any contraceptive method.

A 19-year old male complains of “burning sometimes, when I pee”. Is sexually active and denies using any contraceptive method.

A 32-year old male complains of severe pain to the left flank pain for approx. 2 hours. Was playing volleyball at the beach when it occurred. Admits to drinking 5-6 cans of beer throughout the day and denies other fluid intake.

Discuss what questions you would ask the patient, what physical exam elements you would include, and what further testing you would want to have performed.

Treatment plan, including: pharmacotherapy with complementary and OTC therapy, diagnostics (labs and testing), health education and lifestyle changes, age-appropriate preventive care, and follow-up to this visit.

Use at least one scholarly source other than your textbook to connect your response to national guidelines and evidence-based research in support of your ideas.

In your peer replies, please reply to at least one peer who chose a different case study.

There are many possible causes of male pelvic pain. It’s important to take note of other symptoms, which can help you determine the cause.

Urinary tract infection

The urinary system, or urinary tract, produces urine and removes it from the body. It consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

urinary tract infection (UTI) happens when bacteria overgrow in any of these parts. Most UTIs affect the bladder. A bladder UTI causes cystitis, or bladder inflammation.

UTI symptoms include pelvic pain, along with:

  • pelvic pressure
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • bloody urine
  • painful urination

UTIs are common in women, but men can get them too.


Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, is usually caused by a UTI. But it can be caused by other factors, including:

  • reaction to medication
  • reaction to chemicals in products
  • radiation treatment
  • long-term catheter use

Cystitis pain appears in your pelvic area. Other symptoms include:

  • painful or burning urination
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • cloudy, dark, or smelly urine
  • bloody urine


The prostate is a gland that makes the fluid in semen. Prostatitis occurs when the prostate is inflamed.

The condition may be caused by a bacterial infection or nerve damage in the lower urinary tract. Sometimes there’s isn’t a clear cause.

Along with pelvic pain, prostatitis symptoms include:

  • genital pain (penis and testicles)
  • pain the abdomen or lower back
  • pain between scrotum and rectum
  • bloody urine
  • cloudy urine
  • frequent urination
  • painful urination
  • painful ejaculation
  • flu-like symptoms (bacterial prostatitis)

Sexually transmitted infection

NURS 680B Discussion abdominal pelvic pain

NURS 680B Discussion abdominal pelvic pain

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A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an infection that’s passed through sexual contact. STIs can cause a range of symptoms or no symptoms at all.

In men, pelvic pain may indicate chlamydia or gonorrhea. These infections are caused by bacteria and often appear together.

In addition to pelvic and abdominal pain, symptoms include:

  • discharge from penis
  • painful urination
  • testicular pain


hernia happens when tissue pokes through the muscle that contains it. The most common type is an inguinal hernia, which occurs when intestinal tissue pushes through the abdominal muscle.

Inguinal hernias frequently affect men. If you have an inguinal hernia, you’ll have a painful lump in your lower abdomen or groin. The lump will go away when you lie down, and you might be able to push it back in.

Hernias cause dull pelvic pain. Other symptoms include:

  • groin weakness
  • worsening pain when you laugh, cough, or bend over
  • bulge that slowly grows
  • feeling of fullness

Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder that affects how your large intestine functions. The exact cause isn’t clear, but it may be related to problems with your intestinal muscles, gut bacteria, or nervous system.

IBS causes digestive issues, including pelvic and abdominal pain. Other symptoms include:

  • cramping
  • diarrhea, constipation, or both
  • bloating
  • gas
  • white mucus in stool


The appendix is a small, finger-shaped sac that’s attached to the first part of the large intestine. It’s located on the lower right side of your abdomen.

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix. It can cause severe pelvic pain, which often starts around your belly button then moves to your lower right abdomen. The pain usually gets worse, especially when you cough or sneeze.

MEDICAL EMERGENCYAppendicitis requires emergency help. Call 911 if you think you have appendicitis and have severe pelvic pain along with:

  • appetite loss
  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • abdominal swelling
  • low grade fever
  • inability to pass gas

Urinary stones

Urinary stones are mineral deposits that develop in your urinary tract. They can form in your kidneys (kidney stones) or bladder (bladder stones). It’s also possible for small kidney stones to enter your bladder, where they turn into bladder stones.

Kidney and bladder stones don’t always cause symptoms, but they can cause pelvic pain if they move around.

Other symptoms include:

  • pain in the side and back, under ribs (kidney stones)
  • painful urination
  • frequent urination
  • bloody urine
  • cloudy, dark urine

Urethral stricture

In men, the urethra is a thin tube that connects the bladder to the penis. Urine passes through the urethra to leave the body. It also carries semen.

The urethra can develop scarring due to inflammation, infection, or injury. The scarring narrows the tube, which reduces urine flow. This is called a urethral stricture.

Pelvic pain is a common symptom. You might also have:

  • painful urination
  • bloody or dark urine
  • slow urine stream
  • leakage
  • swollen penis
  • blood in semen
  • UTIs

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) occurs when the prostate gland is enlarged. It’s not a cancerous condition.

An enlarged prostate can put pressure on the urethra and bladder. This reduces urine flow and causes pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis.

Other BPH symptoms include:

  • painful urination
  • frequent urination, especially while sleeping
  • consistent urge to urinate
  • weak urine stream
  • smelly urine
  • urinary incontinence
  • pain after ejaculation

Pudendal nerve entrapment

The pudendal nerve is the main pelvis nerve. It provides sensation to the surrounding areas, including the buttocks and penis. Pudendal nerve entrapment, or pudendal neuralgia, occurs when the pudendal nerve is irritated or damaged.

The primary symptom is constant pelvic pain, which might get worse when you sit down. The pain may feel like:

  • burning
  • crushing
  • prickling
  • stabbing

Other symptoms include:

  • numbness
  • increased pain sensitivity in the pelvis
  • frequent urination
  • sudden urge to urinate
  • painful sex
  • erectile dysfunction

Abdominal adhesion

Abdominal adhesions are fibrous bands of scar tissue that form in the abdomen. The bands can develop between the surfaces of organs or between organs and the abdominal wall. These adhesions can twist, pull, or press on your organs.

Usually, abdominal adhesions affect people who have had abdominal surgery. Most adhesions don’t cause symptoms. If symptoms occur, you may have abdominal pain that spreads to the pelvis.

Abdominal adhesions can lead to intestinal obstruction.

MEDICAL EMERGENCYIntestinal obstruction is an emergency. If you think you have intestinal obstruction and have the following symptoms along with pelvic pain, call 911 and go to the nearest emergency room immediately.

  • abdominal swelling
  • bloating
  • constipation
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • not passing gas
  • inability to have a bowel movement

Chronic pelvic pain syndrome

Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a common cause of pelvic pain in men. It’s often called chronic nonbacterial prostatitis because it makes the prostate tender, but it isn’t caused by bacteria. Scientists don’t know why CPPS happens.

CPPS typically causes pelvic pain that comes and goes. Other symptoms include:

  • pain in the lower back
  • pain in the genitals (penis, testicles, rectum)
  • frequent urination
  • pain that gets worse with prolonged sitting
  • painful urination or bowel movements
  • worsening pain during sex
  • erectile dysfunction

Post-vasectomy pain syndrome

vasectomy is a form of male birth control. It’s a surgical procedure where the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm, are cut or blocked off.

About 1 to 2 percentTrusted Source of men who get a vasectomy develop chronic pain. This is called post-vasectomy pain syndrome (PVPS).

PVPS causes genital pain that spreads to the pelvis and abdomen. Other symptoms include:

  • painful sex
  • painful erections
  • painful ejaculation
  • poor erectile function


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