It is essential to understand the differences and similarities in the theological and psychological underpinnings of philosophical anthropology. Philosophical anthropology refers to a philosophy that attempts to unify the experimental investigation of the human nature to understand persons as creators of their value and based on their environment (Lombo & Russo, 2020, June). Philosophical anthropology draws contributions from psychological and theological knowledge on human behavior. Below is a detailed comparison of psychological and theological perspectives in relation to philosophical anthropology. Despite their imminent differences and opposing points, both psychology and theology offer useful insights on human behavior and to the science of philosophical anthropology.
Comparing Theological and Psychology
The psychological and religious understanding of philosophical anthropology draws from their interpretation of human behavior. However, psychology offers distinct contributions not provided in Christian theology. First of all, contrary to theology, psychology presents evidence of human behavior through case studies, observation, and experiments to study human behavior. However, theology only provides scriptures used as basis or laws for human behavior. For instance, the Ten Commandments are an example of theological contributions on guidelines of proper human behavior. Besides, psychology applies to all human beings, and therefore, the results on human behavior apply to everyone. However, Christian theology is secluded to only the Christian believers. Besides, psychology keeps growing as through the researches; more human behavior aspects are studied while theology is static and has solid non-flexible concepts on human behavior. This is crucial to identify the motives, causes and influences of the human behavior change related to environment and the society. On the other hand, theology draws on the natural and supernatural view of the world. Unlike psychology that draws concepts on concrete data, theology is based on hermeneutics or rather the interpretation of the scripture. It addresses aspects such as sin, guilt, forgiveness, and other concepts that characterize human behavior. Philosophical anthropology is an important part or factor of the Christian theology response to scientific naturalism. Nevertheless, the two approaches are essential to philosophical anthropology to draw detailed conclusions on human behavior (Omarova et al. 2018). Psychology is a science because it utilizes scientific methods and is primarily concerned with human beings’ biopsychosocial model. In psychology, human beings are the primary concern or object of study. Psychological draws on the theories and empirical data on human behavior, and that is observable. However, in theology, studies of God’s relationship with humankind are explored. The teachings of the bible are pivotal in the creation of any doctrine, and they are a standard by which human behavior and beliefs should be molded. By bordering on the supernatural, theological concepts bring another aspect not brought by psychology, which is based only on the observable natural realm (Garlitz, 2018).
Reconciling Theological and Psychological Perspectives
The psychological and theological perspectives on anthropology may have differences, but they can be reconciled. Despite the differences, the two approaches are concerned with human behavior and can be combined from this standpoint. Both theology and psychology are related to the human well-being scientifically, or as per scriptures, they are both concerned with philosophical anthropology. Both theological and psychological approaches enable a uniform, detailed, and complete view of human nature and are useful sources of knowledge for philosophical anthropology.
In conclusion, philosophical anthropology benefits from the concepts of theological and psychological beliefs. Christianity’s focus on human spirituality, coupled with the scientific shreds of evidence on human behavior, offers crucial addition to philosophical anthropology and understanding the human mind and behavior.
Garlitz, D. (2018). Philosophical Anthropology. The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology, 1-6.
Lombo, J. A., & Russo, F. (2020, June). Philosophical Anthropology: An Introduction. Midwest Theological Forum.
Omarova, L. B., Kalimullin, A. M., Grudtsina, L. Y., Korzhuev, A. V., Zhukova, M. Y., & Obstaravacia, S. V. (2018). Philosophical anthropology in postmodernism. XLinguae, 11(3), 76-85.
Define philosophical anthropology and compare the psychological and theological understandings of philosophical anthropology. Identify several distinct contributions offered by psychology that are absent (not offered in detail) from Christian theology. Identify several distinct contributions offered by Christian theology that are absent (or not offered in detail) from psychology. Are psychological and theological perspectives on philosophical anthropology ultimately opposed to and irreconcilable with each other, or can they be reconciled? Defend your answer. 500 words You may use the course textbooks, scholarly articles and the Bible as sources.