SOLUTION: GERO 435 SCSU Housing Transportation and Aging Questions and Case Study Discussion


Please Note: These materials are posted as a courtesy and are limited exclusively to educational use by students enrolled in GERO 435/535 ONLY. Any other use, distribution, or reproduction is prohibited.
Housing, Transportation & Aging
GERO 435/535:
History & Politics of Senior Housing
Dr. Rona Karasik
Mini-Lecture: History & Politics of
Senior Housing – Part 1 (20:46)
FEDERAL SUPPORT OF HOUSING FOR OLDER ADULTS (A BRIEF HISTORY)
1908: PRESIDENTIAL HOUSING COMMISSION (UNDER ROOSEVELT) APPOINTED TO LOOK INTO PROBLEM
OF SLUMS IN U.S.
1918: (POST WW I) CONGRESS AUTHORIZED LOAN PROGRAM FOR HOUSING CONSTRUCTION FOR SHIPYARD AND
DEFENSE WORKERS
1932-1937 (DEPRESSION) BEGINNING OF LARGE-SCALE FEDERAL INTERVENTION
1932: EMERGENCY RELIEF AND CONSTRUCTION ACT
1934: NATIONAL HOUSING ACT CREATING THE FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (FHA)
(1935: Social Security Enacted)
1937: FEDERAL PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM ESTABLISHED
1949: HOUSING ACT OF 1949: BEGINNING OF MODERN ERA IN FEDERAL HOUSING PROGRAMS
Section 515 of Federal Housing Act (1949/1962)
Low interest mortgage loans for new construction of moderate & low-income rural family housing. The Rural Housing Service
(RHS) under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly known as the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) administers
program.
FEDERAL SUPPORT OF HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY (A BRIEF HISTORY)
1959: HOUSING ACT OF 1959: PROVIDED PUBLIC HOUSING SPECIFICALLY OR THE ELDERLY WITH THE CREATION OF:
SECTION 202 (Direct Loan Program For Elderly Renters) [5 Phases From 1959 – Present]
1959-1974 The Moderate-income Eligibility Phase
1975-1980 Low-income Phase
1981-1990 Cost-containment Phase
1990-1994 Transition Phase
1993-present Prac (Project Rental Assistance Contract) Phase (Also Known As Supportive Housing For The Elderly
SECTION 231 (FHA Mortgage Insurance For Rental Projects For Older Persons)
SECTION 232 Of Federal Housing Act (1959) FHA Mortgage Insurance for New Construction or Substantial Rehabilitation of
Nursing Homes, Board And Care Homes, Assisted Living Facilities
SECTION 502 OF FEDERAL HOUSING ACT (1959) Guaranteed Rural Housing Loan Guarantee Program for Rural Residents with a
Steady, Low or Modest Income. Loans to Acquire Modestly Priced Housing for Own Use as a Residence
Section 515 of Federal Housing Act (1949/1962) Low interest mortgage loans for new construction of
moderate- and low-income rural family housing.
1965: FHA became a part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Office of Housing
1974: Section 8 of Federal Housing Act (1974):
Section 8 of Federal Housing Act (1974): Low income (means tested, not age based)
Section 8 of Federal Housing Act (1974):
Who: Low income (means tested, not age based)
What: Federal funds to help persons with low incomes afford housing. Pays share of
rent in units renters chose on the open market (up to 70% cost but total rent must
fall within HUD standards). Restructured program several times since 1974.
History: Shift from government building/managing low income housing (Housing
Act 1937/1961) to providing rent assistance in market rate housing (via vouchers
where feds pay housing cost over 30% of income directly to housing management.
HUD Definition of Low Income Households:
Low-income: earns no more than 80 % of local median income
Very low-income: earns no more than 50% of local median income
Extremely low-income: earns less than 30 % of local median income
Section 202 of Federal Housing Act (1974):
Who: Low income older persons (means tested & age-based). 202 housing is open to any
very low-income household comprised of at least one person who is at least 62 years old
at the time of initial occupancy.
What: Loan program of interest free capital advances to private, non-profits to finance
construction, rehabilitation or acquisition of structures to serve as supportive (assistive)
housing for very low-income older persons (including frail elders) and provides rent
subsidies for the projects to help make them affordable ($$ does not have to be repaid as
long as the project serves very low-income elders for 40 years).
http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/housing/mfh/progdesc/eld202
https://www.huduser.gov/portal/publications/sec_202_1.pdf
Section 202 of Federal Housing Act (1974): History (5 phases)
1959-1974: The Moderate-Income Eligibility Phase: Provided a below-market-rate direct loans (typically larger @ 153
units). 1964: expanded to include funding of buildings designed to serve “non-elderly handicapped”.
1975-1980 : Low-Income Phase: 1974 Housing Act established new mission for Section 202 – serve persons with low
incomes (at/ below 80 percent of the local median income). Project-based Section 8 rental assistance was made
available to cover up to 100 percent of the units for 20 years. Most units smaller (@ 92 units)
1981-1990 Cost-Containment Phase: Program declined substantially (fewer and smaller @ 53 unit) along with cuts in
most federal housing & social welfare programs. HUD cost-containment measures included requirement that at least
25 % units be efficiencies, “commercial” (community) space mostly eliminated and no elevators in 2 story buildings.
1990: from low >80% to very low > 50% of local median income eligibility. As redress for overlooked needs of older
minorities (in previous phases), new priority selection criteria for sponsors located in minority neighborhoods.
1990-1994: Transition Phase: New funding strategy (see PRAC). Residents’ income & size/location similar to low
income phase, but design/construction quality improved. Section 811 (National Affordable Housing Act 1990 a.k.a.
Cranston-Gonzalez Act) replaced portion of Section 202 for low income non-elders with disabilities (but still lived in
202 buildings). 1989-1992 202 assistance for non-elders with disabilities transition phase known as Project Assistance
Contract (PAC).
https://www.huduser.gov/portal/publications/sec_202_1.pdf
Section 202 of Federal Housing Act – Now
1993-present PRAC (project rental assistance contract) phase:
• Also known as Supportive Housing for the Elderly
• Change: Building paid for with construction capital advance rather than loan. Fewer and smaller buildings
built each year (@50 units per).
• Sponsors required to take into account needs of older residents (e.g., staff positions like service
coordinators now automatically eligible in the project’s annual budget)
• Mixed Finance Program (2000) combines Section 202 funds with tax credits to create for-profit
developments. Combining these funds with other sources of funds is allowed, but not required.
Section 232 of Federal Housing Act (1959)
Authorizes FHA to insure mortgages for up to 90 percent of value for the new construction or
substantial rehabilitation of nursing homes, board and care homes, and assisted living facilities,
as well as combinations of these types of projects. Facilities must serve 20 or more patients who
require skilled nursing care and related medical services or need minimum, continuous care by
skilled personnel.
Section 502 of Federal Housing Act (1959)
Guaranteed Rural Housing Loan Guarantee Program for rural residents with a steady, low or
modest income, but unable to get adequate housing through conventional financing. Loans to
acquire modestly priced housing for own use as a residence through the purchase of a new or
existing dwelling or the purchase of a new manufactured home. RHS does not make a loan directly
to an eligible borrower, but guarantees a loan made by a commercial lender (reducing lenders’ risk
thereby encouraging them to make loans to rural residents who have only modest incomes and
little collateral)
Section 515 of Federal Housing Act (1949/1962)
Low interest mortgage loans for new construction of moderate- and low-income rural family
housing. Older persons occupy approximately 40 % Section 515 units. The Rural Housing Service
(RHS) under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly known as the Farmers Home
Administration (FmHA) administers program.
Mini-Lecture: History and Politics of Senior Housing Part 2 (13:55)
Fair Housing Laws
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national
origin in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance.
Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act), as amended, prohibits discrimination in the sale,
rental, and financing of dwellings, and in other housing-related transactions, based on race, color, national origin,
religion, sex, familial status (including children under the age of 18 living with parents or legal custodians, pregnant
women, and people securing custody of children under the age of 18), and handicap (disability).
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504 prohibits discrimination based on disability in any
program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
Section 109 of Title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 Section 109 prohibits
discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex or religion in programs and activities receiving financial
assistance from HUD’s Community Development and Block Grant Program.
https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/FHLaws
Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 The Architectural Barriers Act requires that buildings and
facilities designed, constructed, altered, or leased with certain federal funds after
September 1969 must be accessible to and useable by handicapped persons.
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 Title IX prohibits discrimination on the
basis of sex in education programs or activities that receive federal financial assistance.
Age Discrimination Act of 1975 The Age Discrimination Act prohibits discrimination on the
basis of age in programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance.
Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Title II prohibits discrimination based
on disability in programs, services, and activities provided or made available by public
entities. HUD enforces Title II when it relates to state and local public housing, housing
assistance and housing referrals.
https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/FHLaws
Fair Housing-Related Presidential Executive Orders
Executive Order 11063 (1962, JFK amended 1980, Reagan) Executive Order 11063 prohibits discrimination in the sale,
leasing, rental, or other disposition of properties and facilities owned or operated by the federal government or provided
with federal funds.
Executive Order 11246 (1965, LBJ) Executive Order 11246, as amended, bars discrimination in federal employment because
of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Executive Order 12892 (1994, Clinton) Executive Order 12892, as amended, requires federal agencies to affirmatively
further fair housing in their programs and activities, and provides that the Secretary of HUD will be responsible for
coordinating the effort. The Order also establishes the President’s Fair Housing Council, which will be chaired by the
Secretary of HUD.
Executive Order 12898 (1994 ,Clinton) Executive Order 12898 requires that each federal agency conduct its programs,
policies, and activities that substantially affect human health or the environment in a manner that does not exclude persons
based on race, color, or national origin.
Executive Order 13166 (2000, Clinton) Executive Order 13166 eliminates, to the extent possible, limited English proficiency
as a barrier to full and meaningful participation by beneficiaries in all federally-assisted and federally conducted programs
and activities.
Executive Order 13217 (2001, G.W. Bush) Executive Order 13217 requires federal agencies to evaluate their policies and
programs to determine if any can be revised or modified to improve the availability of community-based living arrangements
for persons with disabilities.
https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/FHLaws
Minnesota Waiver Programs
http://www.mnaging.org/Advisor/InsFinBenefits/Long%20Term%20Care.aspx
Services available, eligibility criteria, and amount of money that a person can use to purchase supports varies by program
Alternative Care (AC): state funded program that supports certain home and community-based
services for older Minnesotans, age 65+, who are at risk of nursing home placement and have low
levels of income & assets (administered by the DHS Aging and Adult Services Division)
Covered services include adult day care, adult foster care, homemaker services, home health aides, personal care
assistance, case management, respite care, assisted living, care-related supplies and equipment, home-delivered
meals, transportation, skilled nursing, chore services, companion services, nutrition services, residential care services,
training for caregivers and modifications to the home. To qualify, older MN must go through a Long-Term Care
Consultation & be assigned a case manager (a county public health nurse or county social worker who will arrange
services and monitor the participant’s well-being. AC is for higher income than elderly waiver and has a sliding scale fee. You can not use it for assisted
living. State funded and used to match federal dollars.
Community Alternative Care (CAC) Waiver: for chronically ill and medically fragile
persons who need the level of care provided in a hospital
Brain Injury (BI) Waiver: for persons with acquired or traumatic brain injuries (TBI) who need
the level of care provided in a nursing facility that provides specialized (cognitive and
behavioral supports) services for persons with brain injury or neurobehavioral hospital level of
care
Community Alternatives for Disabled Individuals (CADI) Waiver: for persons with
disabilities who require the level of care provided in a nursing facility
Developmental Disabilities (DD) Waiver: for persons with developmental disability or
related condition who need the level of care provided in an Intermediate Care Facility for Persons
with Developmental Disabilities (ICF/DD)
Elderly Waiver (EW): (Federal Medicaid program) for people over the age of 65+ who require the
level of care provided in a nursing facility (administered by the DHS Aging and Adult Services
Division) Helps cover cost of services for Minnesotans 65+ who are eligible for MA and require the level of
medical care provided in a nursing home, but choose to reside in the community. Covered services include
visits by a skilled nurse, home health aide, homemaker, companion, personal care assistant, as well as
home-delivered meals, adult day care, supplies and equipment, home modifications, and certified
community residential services (assisted living, foster care, residential care). To qualify for Elderly Waiver, a
senior must go through a long term care consultation and be assigned a case manager (a county public
health nurse or county social worker). EW recipients can receive waiver services and MA services funded
through a managed care organization (MCO). This can be through Minnesota Senior Care Plus (MSC+) or
Minnesota Senior Health Options (MSHO). Elderly waiver is based on medical assistance requirement and can be used
for assisted living.
“What is the difference between Alternative Care and Elderly Waiver?”
Alternative Care
• Available to people with higher income than EW & has a sliding scale fee
• Cannot use AC for assisted living
• State funded and used to match federal dollars
Elderly Waiver
• Based on medical assistance requirement (MA=MN Medicaid)
• Can be used for assisted living
• Funded through Medical Assistance (MN Medicaid)
Mini-Lecture: History & Politics of Senior Housing Part 3 (19:59)
“Housing Policies and Race Relations: A
Context for Life-Course Analysis”
(Karasik & Kishimoto, 2016)
Please Note: These materials are posted as a courtesy and are limited exclusively to educational use by students enrolled in Dr. Karasik’s course. Any other use, distribution, or reproduction is prohibited.
Break & Activity
Adding Social & Political Factors to Sheehan’s (1992) Person-Environment Transaction Model
Adding Social & Political Factors to Sheehan’s (1992) Person-Environment Transaction Model
“Housing Policies and Race Relations: A Context for Life-Course Analysis” (Karasik & Kishimoto, 2016)
Considering Housing Policies in Socio-Political & Historical Context
Video clips :
Past policy/events has contemporary consequences (e.g., de facto housing segregation)
Video clip – “Race: The Power of an Illusion, Episode 3: The House We Live In” (6:04) from

Video clip: rom “Race: The Power of an Illusion” website at
http://www.pbs.org/race/000_General/000_00-Home.htm
Good article – “Racial preferences for whites: The houses that racism built,” Op-Ed by Larry Adelman,
http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-03-11.htm
“Housing Policies and Race Relations: A Context for Life-Course Analysis” (Karasik & Kishimoto, 2016)
Small Group Activity
Form 4 groups and read both of the vignettes (Samuel)
Step 1: Looking Back (Retrospective )
o Think of how past public policies (look at Housing Policy/Chart) led to the current housing situation
for Samuel.
o Look at External, Residential, Community in Sheehan’s model to identify what community they will
be living in, what the quality of the housing would be, and other issues, such as what the income,
educational level, health, etc. of the person would be.
o Draw/write on a poster paper (concept mapping)
Step 2: Looking Forward (Prospective)
o Look at Internal, External, Public policies in Sheehan’s model to think of how Samuel’s current
situation would influence the kind of senior housing situation they would live in the future.
o Think of what kind of senior living situation they can afford (Residential and Community from
Sheehan’s model).
o Draw/write on a poster paper (concept mapping)
Step 3: Class discussion
• Describe your groups’ take on Sam’s housing experiences (past & future)
• What factors led to each groups’ expectations about his experiences?
• What might this insight mean to you as a future practitioner?
Please Note: These materials are posted as a courtesy and are limited exclusively to educational use by students enrolled in GERO 435/535 ONLY. Any other use, distribution, or reproduction is prohibited.
Housing, Transportation & Aging
GERO 435/535:
History & Politics of Senior Housing
Dr. Rona Karasik
Mini-Lecture: History & Politics of
Senior Housing – Part 1 (20:46)
FEDERAL SUPPORT OF HOUSING FOR OLDER ADULTS (A BRIEF HISTORY)
1908: PRESIDENTIAL HOUSING COMMISSION (UNDER ROOSEVELT) APPOINTED TO LOOK INTO PROBLEM
OF SLUMS IN U.S.
1918: (POST WW I) CONGRESS AUTHORIZED LOAN PROGRAM FOR HOUSING CONSTRUCTION FOR SHIPYARD AND
DEFENSE WORKERS
1932-1937 (DEPRESSION) BEGINNING OF LARGE-SCALE FEDERAL INTERVENTION
1932: EMERGENCY RELIEF AND CONSTRUCTION ACT
1934: NATIONAL HOUSING ACT CREATING THE FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (FHA)
(1935: Social Security Enacted)
1937: FEDERAL PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM ESTABLISHED
1949: HOUSING ACT OF 1949: BEGINNING OF MODERN ERA IN FEDERAL HOUSING PROGRAMS
Section 515 of Federal Housing Act (1949/1962)
Low interest mortgage loans for new construction of moderate & low-income rural family housing. The Rural Housing Service
(RHS) under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly known as the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA) administers
program.
FEDERAL SUPPORT OF HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY (A BRIEF HISTORY)
1959: HOUSING ACT OF 1959: PROVIDED PUBLIC HOUSING SPECIFICALLY OR THE ELDERLY WITH THE CREATION OF:
SECTION 202 (Direct Loan Program For Elderly Renters) [5 Phases From 1959 – Present]
1959-1974 The Moderate-income Eligibility Phase
1975-1980 Low-income Phase
1981-1990 Cost-containment Phase
1990-1994 Transition Phase
1993-present Prac (Project Rental Assistance Contract) Phase (Also Known As Supportive Housing For The Elderly
SECTION 231 (FHA Mortgage Insurance For Rental Projects For Older Persons)
SECTION 232 Of Federal Housing Act (1959) FHA Mortgage Insurance for New Construction or Substantial Rehabilitation of
Nursing Homes, Board And Care Homes, Assisted Living Facilities
SECTION 502 OF FEDERAL HOUSING ACT (1959) Guaranteed Rural Housing Loan Guarantee Program for Rural Residents with a
Steady, Low or Modest Income. Loans to Acquire Modestly Priced Housing for Own Use as a Residence
Section 515 of Federal Housing Act (1949/1962) Low interest mortgage loans for new construction of
moderate- and low-income rural family housing.
1965: FHA became a part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Office of Housing
1974: Section 8 of Federal Housing Act (1974):
Section 8 of Federal Housing Act (1974): Low income (means tested, not age based)
Section 8 of Federal Housing Act (1974):
Who: Low income (means tested, not age based)
What: Federal funds to help persons with low incomes afford housing. Pays share of
rent in units renters chose on the open market (up to 70% cost but total rent must
fall within HUD standards). Restructured program several times since 1974.
History: Shift from government building/managing low income housing (Housing
Act 1937/1961) to providing rent assistance in market rate housing (via vouchers
where feds pay housing cost over 30% of income directly to housing management.
HUD Definition of Low Income Households:
Low-income: earns no more than 80 % of local median income
Very low-income: earns no more than 50% of local median income
Extremely low-income: earns less than 30 % of local median income
Section 202 of Federal Housing Act (1974):
Who: Low income older persons (means tested & age-based). 202 housing is open to any
very low-income household comprised of at least one person who is at least 62 years old
at the time of initial occupancy.
What: Loan program of interest free capital advances to private, non-profits to finance
construction, rehabilitation or acquisition of structures to serve as supportive (assistive)
housing for very low-income older persons (including frail elders) and provides rent
subsidies for the projects to help make them affordable ($$ does not have to be repaid as
long as the project serves very low-income elders for 40 years).
http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/housing/mfh/progdesc/eld202
https://www.huduser.gov/portal/publications/sec_202_1.pdf
Section 202 of Federal Housing Act (1974): History (5 phases)
1959-1974: The Moderate-Income Eligibility Phase: Provided a below-market-rate direct loans (typically larger @ 153
units). 1964: expanded to include funding of buildings designed to serve “non-elderly handicapped”.
1975-1980 : Low-Income Phase: 1974 Housing Act established new mission for Section 202 – serve persons with low
incomes (at/ below 80 percent of the local median income). Project-based Section 8 rental assistance was made
available to cover up to 100 percent of the units for 20 years. Most units smaller (@ 92 units)
1981-1990 Cost-Containment Phase: Program declined substantially (fewer and smaller @ 53 unit) along with cuts in
most federal housing & social welfare programs. HUD cost-containment measures included requirement that at least
25 % units be efficiencies, “commercial” (community) space mostly eliminated and no elevators in 2 story buildings.
1990: from low >80% to very low > 50% of local median income eligibility. As redress for overlooked needs of older
minorities (in previous phases), new priority selection criteria for sponsors located in minority neighborhoods.
1990-1994: Transition Phase: New funding strategy (see PRAC). Residents’ income & size/location similar to low
income phase, but design/construction quality improved. Section 811 (National Affordable Housing Act 1990 a.k.a.
Cranston-Gonzalez Act) replaced portion of Section 202 for low income non-elders with disabilities (but still lived in
202 buildings). 1989-1992 202 assistance for non-elders with disabilities transition phase known as Project Assistance
Contract (PAC).
https://www.huduser.gov/portal/publications/sec_202_1.pdf
Section 202 of Federal Housing Act – Now
1993-present PRAC (project rental assistance contract) phase:
• Also known as Supportive Housing for the Elderly
• Change: Building paid for with construction capital advance rather than loan. Fewer and smaller buildings
built each year (@50 units per).
• Sponsors required to take into account needs of older residents (e.g., staff positions like service
coordinators now automatically eligible in the project’s annual budget)
• Mixed Finance Program (2000) combines Section 202 funds with tax credits to create for-profit
developments. Combining these funds with other sources of funds is allowed, but not required.
Section 232 of Federal Housing Act (1959)
Authorizes FHA to insure mortgages for up to 90 percent of value for the new construction or
substantial rehabilitation of nursing homes, board and care homes, and assisted living facilities,
as well as combinations of these types of projects. Facilities must serve 20 or more patients who
require skilled nursing care and related medical services or need minimum, continuous care by
skilled personnel.
Section 502 of Federal Housing Act (1959)
Guaranteed Rural Housing Loan Guarantee Program for rural residents with a steady, low or
modest income, but unable to get adequate housing through conventional financing. Loans to
acquire modestly priced housing for own use as a residence through the purchase of a new or
existing dwelling or the purchase of a new manufactured home. RHS does not make a loan directly
to an eligible borrower, but guarantees a loan made by a commercial lender (reducing lenders’ risk
thereby encouraging them to make loans to rural residents who have only modest incomes and
little collateral)
Section 515 of Federal Housing Act (1949/1962)
Low interest mortgage loans for new construction of moderate- and low-income rural family
housing. Older persons occupy approximately 40 % Section 515 units. The Rural Housing Service
(RHS) under the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), formerly known as the Farmers Home
Administration (FmHA) administers program.
Mini-Lecture: History and Politics of Senior Housing Part 2 (13:55)
Fair Housing Laws
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national
origin in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance.
Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act), as amended, prohibits discrimination in the sale,
rental, and financing of dwellings, and in other housing-related transactions, based on race, color, national origin,
religion, sex, familial status (including children under the age of 18 living with parents or legal custodians, pregnant
women, and people securing custody of children under the age of 18), and handicap (disability).
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Section 504 prohibits discrimination based on disability in any
program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
Section 109 of Title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 Section 109 prohibits
discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex or religion in programs and activities receiving financial
assistance from HUD’s Community Development and Block Grant Program.
https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/FHLaws
Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 The Architectural Barriers Act requires that buildings and
facilities designed, constructed, altered, or leased with certain federal funds after
September 1969 must be accessible to and useable by handicapped persons.
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 Title IX prohibits discrimination on the
basis of sex in education programs or activities that receive federal financial assistance.
Age Discrimination Act of 1975 The Age Discrimination Act prohibits discrimination on the
basis of age in programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance.
Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Title II prohibits discrimination based
on disability in programs, services, and activities provided or made available by public
entities. HUD enforces Title II when it relates to state and local public housing, housing
assistance and housing referrals.
https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/FHLaws
Fair Housing-Related Presidential Executive Orders
Executive Order 11063 (1962, JFK amended 1980, Reagan) Executive Order 11063 prohibits discrimination in the sale,
leasing, rental, or other disposition of properties and facilities owned or operated by the federal government or provided
with federal funds.
Executive Order 11246 (1965, LBJ) Executive Order 11246, as amended, bars discrimination in federal employment because
of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Executive Order 12892 (1994, Clinton) Executive Order 12892, as amended, requires federal agencies to affirmatively
further fair housing in their programs and activities, and provides that the Secretary of HUD will be responsible for
coordinating the effort. The Order also establishes the President’s Fair Housing Council, which will be chaired by the
Secretary of HUD.
Executive Order 12898 (1994 ,Clinton) Executive Order 12898 requires that each federal agency conduct its programs,
policies, and activities that substantially affect human health or the environment in a manner that does not exclude persons
based on race, color, or national origin.
Executive Order 13166 (2000, Clinton) Executive Order 13166 eliminates, to the extent possible, limited English proficiency
as a barrier to full and meaningful participation by beneficiaries in all federally-assisted and federally conducted programs
and activities.
Executive Order 13217 (2001, G.W. Bush) Executive Order 13217 requires federal agencies to evaluate their policies and
programs to determine if any can be revised or modified to improve the availability of community-based living arrangements
for persons with disabilities.
https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/FHLaws
Minnesota Waiver Programs
http://www.mnaging.org/Advisor/InsFinBenefits/Long%20Term%20Care.aspx
Services available, eligibility criteria, and amount of money that a person can use to purchase supports varies by program
Alternative Care (AC): state funded program that supports certain home and community-based
services for older Minnesotans, age 65+, who are at risk of nursing home placement and have low
levels of income & assets (administered by the DHS Aging and Adult Services Division)
Covered services include adult day care, adult foster care, homemaker services, home health aides, personal care
assistance, case management, respite care, assisted living, care-related supplies and equipment, home-delivered
meals, transportation, skilled nursing, chore services, companion services, nutrition services, residential care services,
training for caregivers and modifications to the home. To qualify, older MN must go through a Long-Term Care
Consultation & be assigned a case manager (a county public health nurse or county social worker who will arrange
services and monitor the participant’s well-being. AC is for higher income than elderly waiver and has a sliding scale fee. You can not use it for assisted
living. State funded and used to match federal dollars.
Community Alternative Care (CAC) Waiver: for chronically ill and medically fragile
persons who need the level of care provided in a hospital
Brain Injury (BI) Waiver: for persons with acquired or traumatic brain injuries (TBI) who need
the level of care provided in a nursing facility that provides specialized (cognitive and
behavioral supports) services for persons with brain injury or neurobehavioral hospital level of
care
Community Alternatives for Disabled Individuals (CADI) Waiver: for persons with
disabilities who require the level of care provided in a nursing facility
Developmental Disabilities (DD) Waiver: for persons with developmental disability or
related condition who need the level of care provided in an Intermediate Care Facility for Persons
with Developmental Disabilities (ICF/DD)
Elderly Waiver (EW): (Federal Medicaid program) for people over the age of 65+ who require the
level of care provided in a nursing facility (administered by the DHS Aging and Adult Services
Division) Helps cover cost of services for Minnesotans 65+ who are eligible for MA and require the level of
medical care provided in a nursing home, but choose to reside in the community. Covered services include
visits by a skilled nurse, home health aide, homemaker, companion, personal care assistant, as well as
home-delivered meals, adult day care, supplies and equipment, home modifications, and certified
community residential services (assisted living, foster care, residential care). To qualify for Elderly Waiver, a
senior must go through a long term care consultation and be assigned a case manager (a county public
health nurse or county social worker). EW recipients can receive waiver services and MA services funded
through a managed care organization (MCO). This can be through Minnesota Senior Care Plus (MSC+) or
Minnesota Senior Health Options (MSHO). Elderly waiver is based on medical assistance requirement and can be used
for assisted living.
“What is the difference between Alternative Care and Elderly Waiver?”
Alternative Care
• Available to people with higher income than EW & has a sliding scale fee
• Cannot use AC for assisted living
• State funded and used to match federal dollars
Elderly Waiver
• Based on medical assistance requirement (MA=MN Medicaid)
• Can be used for assisted living
• Funded through Medical Assistance (MN Medicaid)
Mini-Lecture: History & Politics of Senior Housing Part 3 (19:59)
“Housing Policies and Race Relations: A
Context for Life-Course Analysis”
(Karasik & Kishimoto, 2016)
Please Note: These materials are posted as a courtesy and are limited exclusively to educational use by students enrolled in Dr. Karasik’s course. Any other use, distribution, or reproduction is prohibited.
Break & Activity
Adding Social & Political Factors to Sheehan’s (1992) Person-Environment Transaction Model
Adding Social & Political Factors to Sheehan’s (1992) Person-Environment Transaction Model
“Housing Policies and Race Relations: A Context for Life-Course Analysis” (Karasik & Kishimoto, 2016)
Considering Housing Policies in Socio-Political & Historical Context
Video clips :
Past policy/events has contemporary consequences (e.g., de facto housing segregation)
Video clip – “Race: The Power of an Illusion, Episode 3: The House We Live In” (6:04) from

Video clip: rom “Race: The Power of an Illusion” website at
http://www.pbs.org/race/000_General/000_00-Home.htm
Good article – “Racial preferences for whites: The houses that racism built,” Op-Ed by Larry Adelman,
http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-03-11.htm
“Housing Policies and Race Relations: A Context for Life-Course Analysis” (Karasik & Kishimoto, 2016)
Small Group Activity
Form 4 groups and read both of the vignettes (Samuel)
Step 1: Looking Back (Retrospective )
o Think of how past public policies (look at Housing Policy/Chart) led to the current housing situation
for Samuel.
o Look at External, Residential, Community in Sheehan’s model to identify what community they will
be living in, what the quality of the housing would be, and other issues, such as what the income,
educational level, health, etc. of the person would be.
o Draw/write on a poster paper (concept mapping)
Step 2: Looking Forward (Prospective)
o Look at Internal, External, Public policies in Sheehan’s model to think of how Samuel’s current
situation would influence the kind of senior housing situation they would live in the future.
o Think of what kind of senior living situation they can afford (Residential and Community from
Sheehan’s model).
o Draw/write on a poster paper (concept mapping)
Step 3: Class discussion
• Describe your groups’ take on Sam’s housing experiences (past & future)
• What factors led to each groups’ expectations about his experiences?
• What might this insight mean to you as a future practitioner?

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