SOLUTION: Strayer Univeristy Direct Manipulation Discussion


Communicating professionally and ethically is an essential skill set we teach at
Strayer. The following guidelines ensure:
· Your writing is professional
· You avoid plagiarizing others
· You give credit to others in your work
 Review Strayer’s Academic Integrity Policy in the Student Handbook.
 Bookmark the SWS website for additional SWS resources.
 Visit the SWS YouTube page to view helpful SWS videos.
Spring 2020
Essay/Paper Guidelines
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Use these rules when working on an essay!
Design
Include page numbers.
Use 1-inch margins.
Use numerals (1, 2, 3, and so on) or spell out numbers (one, two, three, and so on).
Double space body text in the assignment.
Use consistent 12-point font.
Use section headings to divide separate content areas. Center the section headings on
the page, be consistent, and include at least two section headings in the assignment.
Title Page
Include the assignment title, your name, course title, your professor’s name, and the date
of submission on a separate page (first page of submission).
Develop
Use appropriate language and be concise.
Write in active voice when possible. Find tips here.
Use spelling/grammar check and proofread to keep work error free.
Choose a point of view (first, second, or third person) as required by assignment guidelines.
Cite Credible
Sources
Provide credible sources to support your ideas/work when required. Find tips here.
Build a
Sources List
Include a Sources List when the assignment requires research or if you cite the textbook.
Strayer University Writing Standards
Cite sources throughout your work when you borrow someone else’s words or ideas.
Don’t forget: Cite and add your textbook to the Source List if used as a source.
Type “Sources” centered horizontally on the first line of the Source List page.
Record the sources that you used in your assignment in a numbered list (see Giving
Credit to Authors and Sources section).
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Templated Assignment Guidelines
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Use these rules when working on a written assignment that is not explicitly an essay!
Design
Use the provided template to format the assignment.
Title Page
Generally not required. If it is required, include the assignment title, your name, course
title, your professor’s name, and the date of submission on a separate page (first page of
submission).
Develop
Use appropriate language and be concise.
Write in active voice when possible. Find tips here.
Use spelling/grammar check and proofread to keep work error free.
Choose a point of view (first, second, or third person) as required by assignment guidelines.
Specific assignment guidelines may override these standards. When in doubt, follow
specific assignment guidelines first.
Cite Credible
Sources
Provide credible sources to support your ideas/work when required. Find tips here.
Build a
Source List
Complete the provided Source List when the assignment requires research or if you cite
the textbook.
Cite sources throughout your work when you borrow someone else’s words or ideas.
Don’t forget: Cite and add your textbook to the Source List if used as a source.
If no specific area exists in the template, consult the assignment and instructor guidelines
for appropriate source credit methods.
Cite sources throughout your assignment when you borrow someone else’s words or ideas.
When quoting or paraphrasing a source, include the source number in parentheses after
the body text where you quote or paraphrase.
Strayer University Writing Standards
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PowerPoint/Slideshow Guidelines
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Use these rules when working on a PowerPoint or slideshow assignment!
Design
Use a background color or image on slides.
Use Calibri, Lucida Console, Helvetica, Future, Myriad Pro, or Gill Sans font style.
Use 28–32-point font size for the body of your slides (based on your chosen font style).
Avoid font sizes below 24-point.
Use 36–44-point font size for the titles of your slides (based on chosen font style).
Limit slide content (7 or fewer lines per slide and 7 or fewer words per line).
Number slides when the assignment requires 3 or more slides. Place numbers wherever
you like (but be consistent).
Include appropriate images that connect directly to the slide content or presentation content.
Title Page
Include the assignment title, your name, course title, your professor’s name, and the date
of submission on a separate slide (first of submission).
Develop
Use appropriate language and be concise.
Write in active voice when possible. Find tips here.
Use spelling/grammar check and proofread to keep work error free.
Cite Credible
Sources
Provide credible sources to support your ideas/work when required. Find tips here.
Cite sources throughout your work when you borrow someone else’s words or ideas.
Don’t forget: Cite and add your textbook to the Source List if used as a source.
Sources may be provided on a slide-by-slide basis (providing Source List entries at
bottom of slide where source referenced) or in a comprehensive Source List at the
end of slideshow.
Build a
Sources List
Strayer University Writing Standards
Include a Sources List slide when assignment requires research or if you cite the textbook.
Type “Sources” centered horizontally on the first line of the Source List slide.
Provide sources used in your assignment in a numbered list (see Giving Credit to Authors
and Sources section).
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Discussion Post Guidelines
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Use these rules when working on a Discussion Forum post or response!
Design
Use consistent 12-point font.
Develop
Use appropriate language and be concise.
Include appropriate images or media links that connect directly to discussion topic/content.
Write in active voice when possible. Find tips here.
Use spelling/grammar check and proofread to keep work error free.
Cite Credible
Sources
Provide credible sources to support your ideas/work when required. Find tips here.
Cite sources throughout your discussion response when you borrow someone else’s
words or ideas.
Cite quotes and paraphrases correctly: Include the source number in parentheses after
the body text where quotation or paraphrasing occurs.
Don’t forget: Cite and add your textbook to the Sources List if used as a source.
Type the word “Sources” at the end of your post, and below that include a list of any
sources that you cited.
Number all sources in the order they appear.

Examples
For more information on building a Source List Entry, see
Source List section.
If you pulled information from more than one source,
continue to number the additional sources in the order that
they appear in your post.
SAMPLE POST:
SAMPLE POST:
The work is the important part of any writing
assignment. According to Smith, “writing things
down is the biggest challenge” (1). This is significant
because…
The work is the important part of any writing
assignment. According to Smith, “writing things
down is the biggest challenge” (1). This is significant
because…
Sources
1. William Smith. 2018. The Way Things Are. http://
www.samplesite.com/writing
The other side of this is also important. It is noted
that “the act of writing isn’t important as much as
putting ideas somewhere useful” (2).
Sources
1. William Smith. 2018. The Way Things Are. http://
www.samplesite.com/writing
2. Patricia Smith. 2018. The Way Things Really Are.
http://www.betterthansample.com/tiger
Strayer University Writing Standards
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Credit to Authors and Sources
Use these rules for using evidence and creating in-text citations!
General Credit
·· Credit quoted or paraphrased sources using an in-text citation. An in-text citation includes the primary author’s last name
and the number of the source from the Source List.
·· Before using any source, first determine its credibility. Then decide if the source is appropriate and relevant for your
project. Find tips here.
·· Well-researched assignments have at least as many sources as pages (see assignment instructions).
Option #1: Paraphrasing

Rewording Source Information in Your Own Words
ORIGINAL SOURCE
·· Rephrase source information in your own words. Avoid
repeating the same words of the author.
“Writing at a college level requires informed
research.”
·· Remember, you cannot just replace words from the
original sentence.
·· Add the author’s last name and a number to the end of
your paraphrase as a citation (which will be the same on
your Source List).
Examples
PARAPHRASING
As Harvey wrote, when writing a paper for higher
education, it is critical to research and cite
sources (1).
When writing a paper for higher education, it is
imperative to research and cite sources (Harvey, 1).
Option #2: Quoting

Citing Another Person’s Work Word-for-Word
ORIGINAL SOURCE
·· Place quotation marks at the beginning and end of
quoted information.
“Writing at a college level requires informed
research.”
·· Limit quotes to two or fewer sentences (approximately 25
words) at a time.
·· Do not start a sentence with a quotation.
·· Introduce and explain quotes within the context of your
paper.
·· Add the author’s last name and a number to the end of
the quote as a citation (which will be the same on your
Source List).
Strayer University Writing Standards
Examples
QUOTING
Harvey wrote in his book, “Writing at a college level
requires informed research” (1).
Many authors agree, “Writing at a college level
requires informed research” (Harvey, 1).
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Credit for Web Sources
Web sources are accessed through an internet browser.
Home Pages
A home page loads when typing a standard web address. For instance, typing Google.com into any web browser will take
you to Google’s home page.
Cite a homepage when using information from a news thread, image, or basic piece of information on a company’s website.
Find Tips Here.
Specific Web Pages
If using any web page other than the home page, include the specific page title and direct link (when possible) in the Source
List entry.
If the assignment used multiple web pages from the same source, create separate Source List entries (if the title and/or web
address is different).
Effective Internet Links
When sharing a link to an article with your instructor and classmates, start with a brief summary of the article and why you chose to
share it.
Share vs. URL Options
Cutting and pasting the URL (web address) from your browser may not allow others to view your source. This makes it hard for
people to engage with the content you used.
To avoid this problem, look for a “share” option and choose that when possible. Always test your link(s) before submitting.
If you cannot properly share the link, include the article/source as an attachment. Interested classmates and your professor can
reference the article shared as an attachment. Find tips here.
Charts, Images, and Tables
Charts, images, and tables should be centered horizontally on the page and should be followed by an in-text citation. Design
your page and place a citation below the chart, image, or table. When referring to the chart, image, or table in the body of the
assignment, use the citation.
Do not include a chart, image, or table without introducing it in the assignment and explaining why it is necessary.
On your Source List, provide the following details of the visual:
·· Author’s name (if created by you, provide your name).
·· Date (if created by you, provide the year).
·· Type (Chart, Image, or Table).
·· How to find it (link or other information; see Source List section for additional details).
Strayer University Writing Standards
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Advanced Methods
Some assignments require more advanced techniques. If necessary, these guidelines help with special
case scenarios.
Multiple Sources (Synthesizing)
Synthesizing is the use of multiple sources in one
paraphrased sentence or paragraph to make a strong point.
While this is normally done in advanced writing, it could be
useful for any writing where you use more than one source.
Find tips here.
The key is clarity. If you paraphrase multiple sources
in the same sentence (or paragraph if most of the
information contained in the paragraph is paraphrased),
you should include each source in the citation. Separate
sources using semi-colons (;) and create the citation in
the normal style that you would for using only one source
(Name, Source Number).

Example
SYNTHESIZED IN-TEXT CITATION
(Harvey, 1; Buchanan, 2)
In the example, the authors Harvey and Buchanan were
paraphrased to help the student make a strong point.
Harvey is the first source on the Source List, and Buchanan
is the second source on the Source List.
Traditional Sources

Page Numbers
IN-TEXT CITATION
When referencing multiple pages in a textbook or other
print book, consider adding page numbers to help the
audience understand where the information is found. You
can do this in three ways:
(Harvey, 1, p. 16)
a. by including it in the body of your assignment; or
Example
In the example, the author is Harvey, the source list number
is 1, and the page number where this information can be
found is page 16.
or b. by using an in-text citation;
or c. by listing page numbers in the order used in your
assignment on the Source List.
Check with your instructor or the assignment guidelines to
see if there is a preference based on your course.
Strayer University Writing Standards
8
Substitution and Ellipsis
Omitting unnecessary information from a direct quotation
is often required. To omit information, delete the
unnecessary information and replace it with an ellipsis
inside of square brackets, like this: […]. Find tips here.
There are times when a quality source has made a mistake,
but you still value the information that the source provides.
To solve this issue, change elements of the source (noting
what additions or changes were required). When changing
elements within a direct quotation, delete the original
information and surround the new wording or spelling with
square brackets, like this: “[W]riting”.
The bracket here shows that the original source may have
misspelled “writing” or that the “W” has been capitalized
and was lowercase in the source material.  

Example
ORIGINAL SOURCE
“Writing at a college level requires informed
research.”
ELLIPSIS
Harvey wrote that writing “at a college level
requires […] research” (1).
SUBSTITUTION
Many authors agree that “[w]riting at an [undergraduate] college level requires informed research” (1).
NOTE: Ellipsis and square brackets cannot be used in
paraphrased source material.
Footnotes and Additional Content
Written assignments may benefit from including relevant
background information that is not necessarily important
for the main body of the assignment.
To include extra secondary evidence or authorial
commentary, insert a numeral superscript into the text of
the assignment and add the extra evidence or commentary
in the footer of the page as a footnote. (Note: Microsoft
Word’s “Insert Footnote” function is the preferred method.)

Example
When writing a paper for higher education,4 it is
imperative to research and cite sources (Harvey,
1). This suggestion applies to both undergraduate
and graduate students, and it is the first thing that
beginning students must internalize.
Mathews has pointed out that this suggestion is
appropriate for all levels of education, even those outside
of university, and is in fact best practices for any form
of professional writing (2). However, this paper focuses
specifically on writing in college-level education.
4
Appendices
An assignment may require an appendix following the Source List. The appendix is meant to declutter the assignment body
or provide relevant supplemental information for the audience.
If there is only one appendix, it is labeled, Appendix. More than one appendix may be required. Label the first appendix
Appendix A, the second Appendix B, and so on. Each chart, graphic, or photograph referred to in the body of the
assignment requires its own listing in the appendices.
Use descriptive labels in the body of your written assignment to link each chart, graphic, or photograph to its place in the
appendices. For example, when referring to a chart found in Appendix B, a student would include (see Appendix B, Cost of
Tuition in Secondary Education, 2010-2019) after referring to data drawn from that chart.
Strayer University Writing Standards
9
Source List
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The Source List includes all sources used in your assignment. It is a new page added at the end of your
assignment. The list gives credit to authors whose work supported your own and should provide enough
information so that others can find the source(s) without your help.
Build your Source List as you write.
Setting Up the
Source List Page
Type “Sources” at the top of a new page.
Include a numbered list of the sources you used in your paper (the numbers indicate the
order in which you used them).
1. Use the number one (1) for the first source used in the paper, the number two (2) for
the second source, and so on.
2. Use the same number for a source if you use it multiple times.
Creating a
Source List Entry
Ensure each source includes five parts: author or organization, publication date, title,
page number (if needed), and how to find it. If you have trouble finding these details, then
re-evaluate the credibility of your source.
Use the browser link for a public webpage.
Use a permalink for a webpage when possible. Find tips here.
Instruct your readers on how to find all sources that do not have a browser link or a
permalink.
Separate each Source List element with a period on your Source List.
Source List Elements
AUTHOR
PUBLICATION DATE
TITLE
PAGE NO.
HOW TO FIND
The person(s) who
published the source. This
can be a single person,
a group of people, or an
organization. If the source
has no author, use “No
author” where you would
list the author.
The date the source was
published. If the source
has no publication date,
use “No date” where you
would list the date.
The title of the
source. If the
source has no title,
use “No title”
where you would
list the title.
The page
number(s) used. If
the source has no
page numbers,
omit this section
from your Source
List Entry.
Instruct readers how to find
all sources. Keep explanations
simple and concise, but
provide enough information
so the source can be located.
Note: It is your responsibility
to make sure the source can
be found.
Michael Harvey
2013
p. 1
In the case of multiple
authors, only list the first.
This is not the same as
copyright date, which is
denoted by ©
The Nuts &
Bolts of College
Writing
http://libdatab.strayer.edu/
login?url=http://search.
ebscohost.com/login.aspx

Examples
Strayer University Writing Standards
Include p. and
the page(s) used.
10
NOTE: For the example, Harvey is the first source used in the assignment.

How It Will Look in Your Source List
1. Michael Harvey. 2013. The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing. p. 1. http://libdatab.strayer.edu/
login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx

Sample Source List
Sources
1.
Michael Harvey. 2013. The Nuts & Bolts of College Writing. p. 1. http://libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http://search.
ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=590706&site=eds-live&scope=site
2.
William R. Stanek. 2010. Storyboarding Techniques chapter in Effective Writing for Business, College and Life. http://
libdatab.strayer.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=359141&site=eds-li
ve&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_23
3.
Zyad Hicham. 2017. Vocabulary Growth in College-Level Students’ Narrative Writing. http://libdatab.strayer.edu/
login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsdoj&AN=edsdoj.9b7fad40e529462bafe3a936aaf
81420&site=eds-live&scope=site
4.
Anya Kamenetz. July 10, 2015. The Writing Assignment That Changes Lives. https://www.npr.org/sections/
ed/2015/07/10/419202925/the-writing-assignment-that-changes-lives
Strayer University Writing Standards
11

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